There exist two main classes of algorithms for calculating coordinates: landmark-based schemes, in which overlay nodes use a fixed number of landmark nodes to calculate their coordinates, and simulation-based schemes, which are decentralized and calculate coordinates by modeling nodes as entities in a physical system.
Landmark-based. In GNP , nodes contact multiple landmark nodes to triangulate their coordinates. The drawbacks of this approach are that the accuracy of the coordinates depends on the choice of landmark nodes and landmark nodes may become a bottleneck. Lighthouses  addresses this by supporting multiple independent sets of landmarks with their own coordinate systems. These local coordinates map into a global coordinate system. PIC  does not use explicit landmarks, incorporating measurements to any node using a simplex optimization algorithm to obtain an up-to-date coordinate. These landmark-based schemes require a reasonably stable infrastructure and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been adopted for wide-spread use.
Simulation-based. Vivaldi  and Big Bang Simulation  determine coordinates using spring-relaxation and force-field simulation, respectively. In both, nodes attract and repel each other according to network distance measurements. The low-energy state of the physical system corresponds to the coordinates with minimum error.
de Launois et al. propose a different method for stabilizing coordinates: asymptotically dampening the effect of each new Vivaldi measurement . While this factor does mitigate oscillations in a fixed network, it prevents the algorithm from adapting to changing network conditions.Jonathan Ledlie 2007-02-23